deru-, dō̆ ru-, dr(e)u-, drou-; dreu̯ǝ- : drū-

    deru-, dō̆ ru-, dr(e)u-, drou-; dreu̯ǝ- : drū-
    English meaning: tree
    Deutsche Übersetzung: “Baum”, probably originally and actually “Eiche”
    Note: see to the precise definition Osthoff Par. I 169 f., Hoops Waldb. 117 f.; in addition words for various wood tools as well as for “good as heartwood hard, fast, loyal”; Specht (KZ. 65, 198 f., 66, 58 f.) goes though from a nominalized neuter of an adjective *dṓ ru “das Harte”, from which previously “tree” and “oak”: dṓ ru n., gen. dreu-s, dru-nó-s
    Material: O.Ind. dǘ ru n. “wood” (gen. drṓ ḥ , drúṇaḥ, instr. drúṇü, loc. dǘ ruṇ i; dravya- “from tree”), drú- n. m. “wood, wood tool “, m. “tree, bough”, Av. düuru “tree truck, bit of wood, weapon from wood, perhaps club, mace, joint” (gen. draoš), O.Ind. düruṇ á - “hard, rough, stern” (actually “hard as wood, lumpy “), dru- in compounds as dru-püda- “ klotzfũßig “, drughnī “ wood ax “ (-wooden rod), su-drú-ḥ “good wood”; dhruvá- “tight, firm, remaining “ (dhthrough folk etymology connection in dhar- “hold, stop, prop, sustain” = Av. dr(u)vō, O.Pers. duruva “fit, healthy, intact “, compare O.C.S. sъ-dravъ); Av. drvaēna- “ wooden “, O.Ind. druváya-ḥ “ wooden vessel, box made of wood, the drum”, drū̆ ṇ a-m “bow, sword” (uncovered; with ū Pers. durūna, balučī drīn “ rainbow “), druṇī “ bucket; pail “, dróṇa-m “wooden trough, tub”; drumá-ḥ “tree” (compare under δρυμός); O.Ind. dárvi-ḥ, darvī́ “(wooden) spoon”; Arm. tram “tight, firm” (*drū̆ rümo, Pedersen KZ. 40, 208); probably also (Lidén Arm. stem 66) targal ‘spoon” from *dr̥u̯- or *deru̯-. Gk. δόρυ “tree truck, wood, spear, javelin” (gen. Hom. δουρός, trag. δορός from *δορFός, δούρατος, Att. δόρατος from *δορFn̥τος, whose n̥ is comparable with O.Ind. drúṇaḥ); Cret. δορά (*δορFά) “balk, beam” (= Lith. Ltv. darva); Sicil. ἀσχέδωρος “boar” (after Kretschmer KZ. 36, 267 f. *ἀν-σχε-δορFος or -δωρFος “ standing firm to the spear “), ark. Dor. Δωρι-κλῆς, Dor. böot. Δωρί-μαχος under likewise, Δωριεύς “ Dorian “ (of Δωρίς “ timberland “);
    Note: Who were Dorian tribes? Dorians were Celtic tribes who worshipped trees. In Celtic they were called Druids, priests of ancient Gaul and Britain (also Greece and Illyria). The caste of Druids must have worshiped the dominant thunder god whose thunderbolt used to strike sacred trees. Druids must have planted the religion around the sacred oak at Dodona. δρῦς, δρυός “oak, tree” (from n. *dru or *deru, *doru g.*druu̯ós become after other tree name to Fem.; as a result of the tendency of nominative gradation), ἀκρό-δρυα “ fruit tree “, δρυ-τόμος “ woodchopper “, δρύινος “ from the oak, from oak tree “, Δρυάς “ dryad, tree nymph “, γεράνδρυον “old tree truck”, ἄδρυα πλοῖα μονόξυλα. Κύπριοι Hes. (*sm̥-, Lith. by Boisacq s. v.), ἔνδρυον καρδία δένδρου Hes. Hom. δρῠμά n. pl. “wood, forest”, nachHom. δρῡμός ds. (the latter with previous changed length after δρῦς); δένδρεον “tree” (Hom.; out of it Att. δένδρον), from redupl. *δeν(= δερ)- δρεFον, Dimin. δενδρύφιον; compare Schwyzer Gk. I 583; δροF- in arg. δροόν ἰσχυρόν. ᾽Αργεῖοι Hes., ἔνδροια καρδία δένδρου καὶ τὸ μέσον Hes., Δροῦθος (*ΔροF-υθος), δροίτη “ wooden tub, trough, coffin” (probably from *δροFίτᾱ, compare lastly Schwyzer KZ. 62, 199 ff., different Specht Decl. 139); δοῖτρον πύελον σκάφην Hes. (diss. from *δροFιτρον), next to which *dr̥u̯io- in δραιόν μάκτραν. πύελον Hes. PN Δρύτων: Lith. Drūktenis, O.Pruss. Drutenne (E. Fraenkel, Pauly-Wissowa 16, 1633); in vocalism still not explained certainly δρίος ‘shrubbery, bush, thicket “; Maced. δάρυλλος f. “oak” Hes. (*deru-, compare O.Ir. daur); but δρίς δύναμις Hes., lies δFίς (Schwyzer Gk. I 4955); Alb. dru f. “wood, tree, shaft, pole” (*druu̯ü, compare O.C.S. drъva n. pl. “wood”); drush-k (es-stem) “oak”; ablaut. *drū- in dri-zë “tree”, drũni “ wood bar “;
    Note: Alb. definite form nom. dru-ni = Alb. gen. dru-ni “of wood”: O.Ind. dǘ ru n. “wood” (gen. drṓ ḥ , drúṇaḥ “of wood”; but a pure Slavic loanword is Alb. druvar “ woodcutter, woodchopper “ [conservative definitive forms versus indefinite forms (Alb. phonetic trait)] Thrac. καλαμίν-δαρ ‘sycamore”, PN Δάρανδος, Σάραντος (*dar-ant-) “ Eichstätt a district in Bavaria “, Ζίνδρουμα, Δινδρύμη “ Zeus’s grove “, VN ᾽Ο-δρύ-σ-αι, Δρόσοι, Dru-geri (dru- “wood, forest”); Maybe VN ᾽Ο-δρύ-σ-αι : Etruria (Italy) from Lat. perhaps dūrus “ hard, harsh; tough, strong, enduring; in demeanour or tastes, rough, rude, uncouth; in character, hard, austere,sometimes brazen, shameless; of things, hard, awkward, difficult, adverse “ (but about dūrüre “ to make hard or hardy, to inure; intransit., to become hard or dry; to be hard or callous; to endure, hold out; to last, remain, continue “ see under S. 220), if after Osthoff 111 f. as ‘strong, tight, firm as (oak)tree “ dissimilated from *drū-ro-s (*dreu-ro-s?); Maybe Alb. duroj “endure, last”, durim “patience” . but Lat. larix “larch tree”, Lw. is from an IE Alpine language, IE *derik-s, is conceivable because of heavy l;
    Note: Common Lat. d- > l- phonetic mutation hence Lat. larix (*derik-s) “larch tree”. Maybe Pelasgian Larissa (*dariksa) O.Ir. derucc (gg), gen. dercon “glans”, Welsh derwen “oak” (pl. derw), Bret. deruenn ds., Gaul. place name Dervus (“oak forest”), O.Brit. Derventiō, place name, VN Dervüci under likewise; O.Ir. dērb ‘safe “; reduced grade O.Ir. daur, gen. daro “oak” (deru-), also dair, gen. darach ds. (*deri-), O.Ir. daurde and dairde “oaken “; derived Gaul. *d(a)rullia “oak” (Wartburg III 50); Maced. δάρυλλος f. “oak”; zero grade *dru- in intensification particle (? different Thurneysen ZcPh. 16, 277: “oak-”: dru- in gaLat. δρυ-ναίμετον “ holy oak grove “), e.g. Gaul. Dru-talos (“*with big forehead”), Druides, Druidae pl., O.Ir. drūi “Druid” (“the high; noble “, *dru-u̯id-), O.Ir. dron “tight, firm” (*drunos, compare O.Ind. dru-ṇa-m, düru-ṇá-, dróṇa- m), with guttural extension (compare under Ger. Trog) M.Ir. drochta “(* wooden) barrel, vat, cask; barrel, tub”, drochat “bridge”; here also gallorom. drūtos ‘strong, exuberant (: Lith. drūtas)”, Gk. PN Δρύτων, O.Ir. drūth “foolish, loony” (: O.Ice. trūðr “juggler, buffoon”?), Welsh drud “foolish, loony, valiant” (Welsh u derives from romO.N. equivalent); deru̯- in Gmc. Tervingl, Matrib(us) Alatervīs , O.N. tjara (*deru̯ōn-), finn. Lw. terva, O.E. teoru n., tierwe f., -a m. “tar, resin” (*deru̯i̯o-), M.L.G. tere “tar” (Ger. Teer); O.N. tyrvi, tyri “pinewood”, tyrr “pine” (doubtful M.H.G. zirwe, zirbel “ pine cone “, there perhaps rather to M.H.G. zirbel “whirl”, because of the round spigot); dreu̯- in Goth. triu n. “wood, tree”, O.N. trē, O.E. trēow (Eng. tree), O.S. trio “tree, balk, beam”; in ũbtr. meaning “tight, firm - tight, firm relying” (as Gk. ἰσχῡρός “tight, firm”: ἰσχυρίζομαι “ show firmly, rely on whereupon, trust in “), Goth. triggws (*treu̯u̯az) “loyal, faithful”, O.H.G. gi-triuwi “loyal, faithful”, an: tryggr “loyal, faithful, reliable, unworried “, Goth. triggwa “ alliance, covenant “, O.E. trēow “faith, belief, loyalty, verity”, O.H.G. triuwa, Ger. Treue, compare with ders. meaning, but other ablaut O.N. trū f. “religious faith, belief, assurance, pledge”, O.E. trŭwa m., M.L.G. trūwe f. ds., O.H.G. trūwa, O.Ice. trū f., besides trūr “loyal, faithful”; derived O.N. trūa “trust, hold for true” = Goth. trauan, and O.E. trŭwian, O.S. trūōn, O.H.G. trū(w)ēn “trust” (compare n. O.Pruss. druwis); similarly O.N. traustr ‘strong, tight, firm”, traust n. “confidence, reliance, what one can count on”, O.H.G. trōst “reliance, consolation” (*droust-), Goth. trausti “pact, covenant”, changing through ablaut Eng. trust “reliance” (M.Eng. trūst), M.Lat. trustis “loyalty” in afränk. “law”, M.H.G. getrũste “troop, multitude, crowd”; maybe Alb. trũs, trys “press, crowd” (st- formation is old because of Pers. durušt “hard, strong”, durust “fit, healthy, whole”; Nor. trysja “clean the ground”, O.E. trūs “deadwood”, Eng. trouse, O.Ice. tros “dross”, Goth. ufartrusnjan “disperse, scatter”. *drou- in O.E. trīg, Eng. tray “flat trough, platter”, O.S. trö “a certain measure vessel” (*trauja-, compare above δροίτη), O.N. treyju-sǫðull (also trȳju-sǫðoll) “a kind of trough shaped saddle”; *drū- in O.Ice. trūðr “jester”, O.E. trūð “merrymaker, trumpeter” (:gallorom. *drūto-s, etc)? *dru- in O.E. trum “tight, firm, strong, fit, healthy” (*dru-mo-s), with k-extension, respectively forms -ko- (compare above M.Ir. drochta, drochat), O.H.G. Ger. trog, O.E. trog, troh (m.), O.N. trog (n.) “trough” and O.H.G. truha “ footlocker “, Nor. dial. trygje n. “a kind of pack saddle or packsaddle”, trygja “a kind of creel”, O.H.G. trucka “hutch”, nd. trũgge “trough” and with the original meaning “tree, wood” O.H.G. hart-trugil “dogwood”; maybe nasalized Alb. trung (*trũgge) “wood, tree” Bal.-Slav. *deru̯a- n. “tree” in O.C.S. drěvo (gen. drěva, also drěvese), Ser.-Cr. dial. drêvo (drȉjevo), Sloven. drẹvộ, O.Cz. dřěvo, Russ. dérevo, Clr. dérevo “tree”; in addition as originally collective Lith. dervà, (acc. der̃vą) f. “ chip of pinewood; tar, resinous wood”; ablaut, Ltv. dar̃va “tar”, O.Pruss. in PN Derwayn; lengthened grade *dōru̯ -i̯ü- in Ltv. dùore f. “ wood vessel, beehive in tree”;*su-doru̯a- “fit, healthy” in O.C.S. sъdravъ, Cz. zdráv (zdravū), Russ. zdoróv (f. zdoróva) “fit, healthy”, compare Av. dr(u)vō , O.Pers. duruva ds. Balt *dreu̯i̯ü- f. “ wood beehive “, substantiv. adj. (O.Ind. dravya- “ belonging to the tree “) : Lith. drẽvė and dreve ̃ “cavity in tree”, Ltv. dreve ds.: in ablaut Lith. dravìs f., Ltv. drava f. “ wood beehive “, in addition O.Pruss. drawine f. “prey, bee’s load “ and Lith. drave ̃ “hole in tree”; furthermore in ablaut E.Lith. drėve ̃ and drove ̃ f. ds., Ltv. drava “cavity in beehive”; Proto-Slav.. *druu̯a- nom. pl. “wood” in O.C.S. drъva, Russ. drová, Pol. drwa (gen. drew); *druu̯ina- n. “wood” in Clr. drovno, slovz. drẽvnø; Slav. *drъmъ in Russ. drom “ virgin forest, thicket “, etc (= O.Ind. drumá-ḥ, Gk. δρυμός, adjekt. O.E. trum); Lith. su-drus “abundant, fat (from the growth of the plants)” (= O.Ind. su-drú-ḥ “good wood”); Balt drūta- ‘strong” (== gallorom. *drūto-s, Gk. PN Δρύτων) in Lith. drū́ tas, driū́ tas ‘strong, thick”, O.Pruss. in PN Drutenne, PN Druthayn, Druthelauken; belongs to O.Pruss. druwis m. “faith, belief”, druwi f., druwīt “believe” (*druwēti: O.H.G. trūen), na-po-druwīsnan “reliance, hope”. Beside Lith. drū́ tas also drū́ ktas; see under dher-2. In ablaut here O.C.S. drevlje “ fore, former, of place or time; higher in importance, at first or for the first time “, O.Cz. dřéve, Russ. drévle “ages before”; adverb of comparative or affirmative. Hitt. ta-ru “tree, wood”, dat. ta-ru-ú-i; here also probably Toch. AB or “wood” (false abstraction from *tod dor, K. Schneider IF. 57, 203).
    Note: The shift d- > zero is a Balt-Illyr. phonetic mutation inherited by Toch.
    References: WP. I 804 ff., WH. I 374, 384 ff., 765 f., Trautmann 52 f., 56, 60 f., Schwyzer Gk. I 463, 518, Specht Decl. 29, 54, 139.

Proto-Indo-European etymological dictionary. 2015.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • deru- — Also dreu . To be firm, solid, steadfast; hence specialized senses “wood,” “tree,” and derivatives referring to objects made of wood. Derivatives include tree, trust, betroth, endure, and druid. 1. Suffixed variant form *drew o . a. tree, from …   Universalium

  • der-, heavy basis derǝ-, drē- —     der , heavy basis derǝ , drē     English meaning: to cut, split, skin (*the tree)     Deutsche Übersetzung: ‘schinden, die Haut abziehen, abspalten, spalten”     Note: Root der , heavy basis derǝ , drē : “to cut, split, skin (*the tree)”… …   Proto-Indo-European etymological dictionary

  • trewjan — *trewjan, *trewwjan germ., schwach. Verb: nhd. treu sein ( Verb), treu machen; ne. be (Verb) faithful, make (Verb) faithful; Rekontruktionsbasis: an., ae.; Etymologie: s. ing. *deru̯o …   Germanisches Wörterbuch

  • trausta- Ⅲ — *trausta , *traustaz germ., Adjektiv: nhd. stark, fest; ne. strong, firm (Adjektiv); Rekontruktionsbasis: got., an., mnl., mnd., ahd.; Quelle: Personenname; Etymologie …   Germanisches Wörterbuch

  • traustja- — *traustja , *traustjam germ.?, stark. Neutrum (a): nhd. Bund, Bündnis; ne. alliance; Rekontruktionsbasis: got.; Etymologie: s. ing. *deru , *dreu , *drū , *drou …   Germanisches Wörterbuch

  • traustjan — *traustjan germ., schwach. Verb: nhd. zuversichtlich sein ( Verb), vertrauen; ne. be (Verb) confident; Rekontruktionsbasis: an., afries., anfrk., as., ahd.; Etymologie: s …   Germanisches Wörterbuch

  • trausts — *trausts germ., Substantiv: nhd. Vertrag; ne. contract (Neutrum); Etymologie: vergleiche idg. *deru , *dreu , *drū , *drou , Substantiv, Baum, Pokorny 214 …   Germanisches Wörterbuch

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